What Is Cancer?
Cancer is the term which encompasses a very complex group which contains wide range of cancerous diseases. This is considered as a class of diseases which is being characterized by the out-of-control cell growth. The classification is based on the type of the cell which is initially affected. It will harm your body when the damaged cells are dividing uncontrollably and forms masses or lumps of tissues. This is referred to as tumors. Usually the tumors will grow and will interfere with the nervous, digestive as well as circulatory systems. This in turn can even release some hormones which will alter the functions of your body. Those tumors which are occurring only at a single place and demonstrating limited growth will be considered as benign.
Most of the malignant or dangerous tumors will be formed when certain things occur. The cancerous cell which is formed at a particular place in the body will be moving throughout your body with the aid of lymph or blood systems. This will destroy the healthy tissues which are present in your body through a process called invasion. The next way through which the tumors generate is when the cells are managing to split and grow. They will be making newer blood vessels for feeding themselves in a process which is known as angiogenesis.
Metastasized is said to be a situation in which the tumor is successfully spreading all over the body thereby destroying as well as invading all the healthy tissues. This process on the whole is known as metastasis and will end in very serious conditions which are very difficult to treat. Those researchers and the physicians who are specialized in the study, treatment, diagnosis as well as prevention of this disease are referred to as oncologists.
Causes of Cancer
Cancer is occurred as a result of the cells which are growing uncontrollably and do not decease. The normal cells which are present in your body will be following on an orderly path of the growth, division as well as death. Apoptosis is referred to as a programmed cell death. When this process is failed, the formation of cancer begins. The cancer cells are not like the other cells in your body and hence they will not be experiencing any programmatic death. Instead of this, they will continue to grow at very fast rates and divide. This in turn will lead to a mass accumulation of abnormal cells in your body which will grow out of control.
If there are any mutations or damages to the DNA, then the cells will be experiencing certain uncontrollable growth and this will lead to the damage of the genes which is involved the division of the cell. There are mainly four different types of gene which are responsible for the process of cell division and they are oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, suicide genes and DNA repair genes. The oncogenes present in the body will tell the cells when to divide; whereas the tumor cells in the body will tell the cells when they should divide. The suicide genes will be controlling the apoptosis and will inform the cell to kill itself if something is going wrong. The DNA repair genes will be instructing a cell for repairing the damaged DNA.
Carcinogens are considered as a class of substances which are directly accountable for damaging the DNA, promoting as well as aiding the cancer. Some of the best examples of carcinogens may include tobacco, arsenic, asbestos, radiations like x-rays and gamma rays, the sun and various other compounds which are present in the car exhaust fumes. When our body is exposed to carcinogens, the free radicals which are formed will try to steal electrons from the various other molecules which are present in your body. These free radicals will normally damage the healthy cells and will also affect the ability of the cells to function in the normal way.
Coming to the family type of the gene, the cancer is produced as a result of certain genetic predisposition which is being inherited from the family members. Most probably they are formed with genetic mutations or due to certain other faults in the genes. These conditions will usually lead to cancer in the future life. The symptoms of the cancer will be varying depending on the place where it located, to where it is spreading and so on. Some of the cancers are seen or felt through the skin. Sometimes, a testicle or lump on the breast will be an indicator of the cancer in that location. Melanoma or skin cancer is often noted with the change in wart or with the presence of mole in the skin. Some of the oral cancers will be producing certain white patches inside your mouth. It can also be identified with the occurrence of white spots on your tongue. However, some of the other types of cancers will not be that much physically apparent.